How to Fabricate High Quality Sand Pumps

///How to Fabricate High Quality Sand Pumps

How to Fabricate High Quality Sand Pumps

Sand Pumps can be simply classified as sand pump, slurry pump and gravel pump, etc. TAI’AN OCEAN PUMP CO., LTD specializes in designing,  fabricating large-particle sand pumps, sand suction pumps, dredging pumps and slurry pumps.  OCEAN Pump is the leading brand in this industry and has extensive industrial experience in the production of sand pumps. Sand pump machine is most commonly used in pumping system that move sand deposits to long distance.  Our sand pumps are widely used in mining, metallurgy, coal washing, power plants, sewage water treatment, dredging, and chemical and petroleum industries.  All our sand pumps follow strict and practical manufacturing processes. Sand pump manufacturing process includes the following steps: Sand Pumps Design, Making molds, Casting, Heat Treatment, Finishing , Assembly and Testing.

1. Sand Pumps Design

According to customers’ requirements on the sand pumps flow head, our engineers calculate the size data of the impeller pump shaft, pump casing, guard plate and other components with professional fluid calculation software. Determine the blade form and blade angle according to two-phase flow and other related theories. After the drawing design, it will be handed over to the molding factory and make molds.

Sand Pumps Design Drawings
casting mold of sand pumps

2.Making molds

First, carry out the three dimensional drawings of the sand pumps mold according to the dimensional data. Check the data,  size adjustments and check the overall size of the sand pumps.

Second, casting simulation to determine the casting port, analyze the sand pumps draft angle and thickness and make a scale.

Finally, make the mold, determine the position of the parting surface, produce male and female models.


After the sand pumps mold is completed, filling the mold cavity with a previously molten metal, the initial casting temperature is generally between 1550 °C and 1560 °C, The gray iron is 1380 °C, Ductile iron is 1420 °C, casting time is within 1-2 minutes. Control the flow direction and speed of molten metal, adjust the temperature of all parts of the casting, Control the cooling and solidification sequence. Solidification in situ for 10 hours after casting, then move the position to cool for 48-115 hours. Unpacking temperature below 300 °C, after the casting is completely cooled and solidified, separate the sand pumps castings from the mold.

Sand Pumps Blank Production
sand pump open impeller

Cast iron and cast steel impeller of sand pumps are usually molded by ordinary sand casting. Molding sand is mostly resin sand, asphalt sand, cement self-hardening sand and so on. The open and semi open impeller of the sand pumps usually is cast directly without the core, and the open half open impeller of the closed impeller and the complex blade of the space need to be cast in the sand cavity. The inner surface of the front and rear covers of the closed impeller is used to form the flow path of the liquid flow, and the middle part is a plurality of blades evenly distributed along the circumferential direction. Inside the impeller blade shape before and after the cover and the middle of the hydraulic model by casting forming, no mechanical processing. The other surfaces of sand pumps, such as the outer side of the front cover, the front ring, the end face of the suction mouth, the outer surface of the rear cover, the back ring, the balance hole, the shaft hole, the key way and the end face of the shaft hole, should be machined to the size and shape of the calibration of the product pattern, and ensure the requirements for the tolerance of the shape and position. The static balance test of the sand pumps impeller is also carried out.

The principles of turbo machinery machining process should be ensured, so that the runner and intermediate blades formed by the front and rear cover plates should be rotated around the theoretical axis. Only in this way, the thickness of the front and rear cover of the impeller is uniform, the length of the blade is consistent and the axis line is evenly distributed along the circumference direction. The fluid flow from the impeller is stable, thus ensuring the hydraulic performance of sand pumps and gravel pumps. Otherwise, the thickness of the front and back cover plates is uneven, the length of the middle blade is not uniform and can not be evenly distributed around the circumference of the axis line, so that the fluid flow from the impeller is swaying, the reverse force of the liquid flow to the blade is uneven and unbalance, thus affecting the hydraulic performance of the sand pumps, increasing the vibration and noise of the sand pumps, and slurry suction pumps. Operation stability and reliability.

sand pumps close impeller
Sand Pumps Casting Annealing

4. Heat Treatment
Annealing is a heat treatment process in which a metal casting is slowly heated to a certain temperature for a sufficient period of time and then cooled at a suitable rate (usually slow cooling, sometimes controlled cooling). The purpose of annealing is to reduce the hardness, improve the cutting process ability; eliminate the residual stress, stabilize the size, reduce the tendency of deformation and cracking; refine the grain, adjust the organization, eliminate the defects of the organization; uniform the structure and composition of the material, improve the material properties or prepare tissue for later heat treatment.
After the sand pumps casting is processed into a certain temperature in the furnace, take it out and put it into an annealing cooling zone, classified the emission according to the flowing processing program, Wait for the surface temperature of the casting to be cooled by itself.

5.Sand Pumps Casting Rough Processing

Sand pumps casting surface has gates, risers, metal burrs and drapes. Sand castings also stick to sand, so it must go through the cleaning process. Using roughening machines, shot blasting machines and other mechanical equipment to rough the casting surface process. Smooth grinding and prepare for subsequent finishing.

Sand Pumps Casting Rough Processing
Sand Pumps Casting Quenching

6.Sand Pumps Casting Quenching

Quenching is a heat treatment process in which a casting is heated to a suitable temperature for a period of time and then rapidly cooled by immersing it in a quenching medium. Commonly quenching media are brine, water, mineral oil, air and so on. Quenching can increase the hardness and wear resistance of metal work pieces. Through quenching and tempering at different temperatures, can greatly improve the strength, toughness and fatigue strength of the casting, and also can obtain the cooperation between these properties (comprehensive mechanical properties) to meet different application requirements.

After heating the sand pumps casting to a certain temperature, put it in a prepared cold water container and quickly cool it immediately. After the surface temperature of the casting is lowered to room temperature, removed it from the cold water container, placed in the casting area, and awaits the next finishing process.

The hardness of the casting is increased after quenching, which increases the wear resistance of the casting.


(1)Pump Body Processing:
The sand pumps processing equipment mainly includes lathes, vertical lathes, and boring machines. The sand pumps body is machined in vertical and boring machines, and clamped on the work surface.

Use horn to correct the position of the flow channel, which is convenient for compaction. The boring table can be rotated to machine multiple sides in one setup.

(2)Impeller Processing:
Impeller processing mainly work on a lathe. Use four-jaw clamp the impeller outer diameter, take the center of the runner or the front and rear cover flow channels as the axial alignment reference and the impeller inlet diameter for clamping after radial alignment. Rough wheel impeller inlet port ring fine car balance 1-2 mm; Drill the balance holes of the impeller, ensure the size and evenly divide the blade spacing, and not damage the blades. Finally perform the balance test.

(3)Shaft Processing:
The center hole must be repaired for the heat-treated shaft. Hold both ends to Semi-finishing, fine car allowance 0.5-1 mm, and complete the machining of the thread on the shaft, retracting groove, etc. Pay attention to avoid stress concentration due to sharp corners and influence the strength of the shaft; for the less demanding parts, can use lathe carrier, then refinishing the outer circle. If the mating surface requires high precision and mass production of the shaft, Abrasive wear allowance 0.3-0.6 mm; Milling key way, pay attention to ensure symmetry; grinding the outer circle, Use two tops of lathe carrier to grind the mating surface.

Sand Pumps Casting Finishing
Sand Pumps Assembly of Bearings


a.Assembly of Bearings.
Put the bearing in hot oil and heat it. After heating for a while, take it out and embed into the shaft. After axis assembly is completed, fixed it on the bracket body, grease the bearing; fix the bearing housing and bearing cover.

b.Installation of Back Cover
Put the auxiliary impeller into the impeller chamber, and then fix it on the back cover. Add sealant to ensure no leakage. The back plate is also bolted to the back cover. After fixing, insert the assembled back cover embeds the bracket. Tighten the six screws under the bracket and secure the back cover to the bracket.

Installation of Sand Pumps Case
Installation of Sand Pumps Front Cover

c.Installation of Impeller
After fixing the back cover, add grease to the front of the pump shaft, easy to screw on the impeller. Rotate the pump shaft and insert it into the hole of the impeller. Turn the pump shaft, until it is tightened. Make sure there is no friction between the impeller and the back plate.

d.Installation of Pump Case
After fixing the impeller, fix the sealing gasket on the back cover, tighten the screw rod around the pump case. Determine the outlet direction and align the screw holes on the back cover. Press the pump case to the back cover. After the screws are all aligned and embedded, tighten the screws.

e.Installation of Front Cover
As with the same way of back plate installation method, the front plate is also fixed on the front cover, tighten the screws. Then connect the suction casing to the front cover. Put gasket at the joints to prevent leakage. After fixing the suction casing, lift the front cover and align screw hole, move to the pump case slowly. After fastening, tighten the screws. After all the screws are tightened, turn the pump shaft, check if there is friction between the impeller and the front plate. After confirming no wear, and run normally, the sand pump assembly is completed.


After the sand pump assembly is completed, take it to the laboratory for performance testing to meet the requirements of working conditions. First, conduct a stress test, seal the import and export, and leave the inlet pipe at the entrance. Through the inlet pipe, Inject water with into the pump with 0.35 Mpa, observe if there is the leak at the machine seal. Maintain for a period of time with the water pressure, if there is no leakage, the release the water. Then fix the pump to the motor on the test bench, adjust the speed of the motor by frequency conversion, test the pump flow rate and head change at different speeds, then make the performance curve. Continue to operate, observe the running of the pump, and record at different times. After 48 hours of operation, the pump performance was normal, no failure occurred, and the test passed the test to meet the factory requirements.

Sand Pumps Test
Sand Pumps Production

OCEAN Pump had been specialized in designing, manufacturing and supplying sand pump, slurry pump, gravel pump and dredger equipment for more than 20 years. With innovative hydraulic and structural design, our main sand pumping over-flow parts are made of the wear resistant high chrome alloy, the sand pump will have long working life, reliable operation and small vibration, low noise and easy maintain. We have more than 30 talented sand pump experts and 15,000 square meters factory. More than 4 series 20 kinds of sand pumps, slurry pumps, sand dredgers and related parts had been manufactured to satisfy your sand pump machines.

We had provided effective sand pumping equipment and dredging equipment to over 60 countries. Our products are widely used for river sand pumping, mining pumping, pond dredging, reservoir dredging, tailing transportation and land reclamation etc. Our sand pumps have advantages like :the flow is continuous and uniform, basically without pulse phenomenon,the operation is stable, and the applicable flow range is large,the speed is high, the structure is simple and compact, the size is small, and the cost is low.Insensitive to impurities, less vulnerable parts and convenient maintenance.Our customers are from Southeast Asia like Malaysia and Singapore, Central Asia like Kazakhstan, South America like Brazil, Africa like Nigeria, Cameroon and Cote d’Ivoire.

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